The critical situation with air pollution in the world, and especially in the big cities are forcing industries to seek solutions to this problem. According to statistics, more than 70% of the pollution is accounted by emissions from road transport.
The main solution to this problem is the use of environmentally friendly fuels such as compressed and liquefied natural gas (CNG and LNG), and in the future – hydrogen fuel (H2). You need to create different types of storage containers for these gases, and it must be safe and reliable in operation.
At the moment, the storage of compressed natural gas is massively stored in metal containers (more than 90% of all types of cylinders). They weigh comparatively higher (0.9 to 2.0 kg per 1-liter volume). The process of preparing composite type 4 tanks, with its high cost and complex manufacturing process, can prevent its widespread use.
Composite Cylinders Advanced (CAA) offers a light (weight 0.3-0.5 kg per 1-liter volume) and explosion proof (no fragmentation failure of the cylinder) composite type 4 cylinders for compressed natural gas. This solves a lot of shortcomings as they work as fuel tanks for road transport.
Many global companies are addressing these issues as it is a technical challenge.
One of the major hubs of the cylinder is a liner – liner inside the power shell. The following are the main requirements of a liner:
- The gas permeability of not more than 0.25 ml/hour for 1-liter volume;
- Operating temperatures under static and dynamic loading of not higher than -40 degrees and +65 degrees C;
- Adhesive joint with power shell;
- Chemical stability with temperature and mechanical loads;
- High thermal conductivity;
- The tight connection of the liner with threaded metal bushing.
Compliance with these basic requirements in the manufacture of the liner is cylinder 4 type. But the use of expensive, energy-intensive and sophisticated equipment leads to high cost of the cylinder. CAA intends this procedure to be greatly simplified by using a more simple and accessible equipment, allowing the customers to get a more competitively priced tank.
The next important node in the fabrication of the container is creating a structural envelope. This envelope conforms to the requirements of EN 11439 and ISO 11119-3. While the pressure should not be less than 47 MPa and 2.35 as a factor of safety for carbon fiber, the cylinders must withstand at least 45 000 load cycles of pressure up to 30 MPa. There are many other testings to match the cylinders to meet the above-mentioned standards. These figures give a clear idea of how technically complex the product composite cylinder 4 type is.
The technology of winding to create a power shell is widely used in the industry. But the use of CAA products in the impregnation of fibers and formula of winding will allow obtaining significant savings and high-quality power shell.
The CAA team who is currently implementing the project has extensive experience in the creation of products from composite materials and has already brought to the world market the composite type 4 cylinders for liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). The use of cylinders for CNG has been significantly used earlier. There many other new and unique technological solutions also being developed. All these factors CAA the opportunity to create the most competitive and reliable type 4 cylinders which will satisfy the highest demands of the customers.
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